Samvatsara – the year. Lunar year (Chandramana) und Solar year (Sauramana).
Ayana – half the year.
Masa – the month.
Paksha – the two phases of the moon.
Ritu – the season.
The course of the sun to north (Uttarayana) and south (Dakshinayana).
Shishira – Early spring, Magha, Phalguna – January/February, February/March.
Vasanta – Spring, Chaitra, Vaishaka – March/April, April/May.
Grishma – Summer, Jyeshtha, Ashadha – May/June, June/July.
Varsha – Rainy season, Shravana, Bhadrapada – July/August, August/September.
Sharada – Autumn, Ashvina, Karttika – September/October, October/November.
Hemanta – Winter, Margashirsa, Pausha – November/December, December/January.
With Amavasya (new moon) Shuklapaksha, the bright, waxing phase of the moon begins.
With Purnima (full moon) Krishnapaksha, the dark, waning phase of the moon begins.
The cycle is Amavasya – Shuklapaksha – Purnima – Krishnapaksha.